Double Double

March to the beat of your own drum. Generally, we talk about fancy-pants burgers, which makes sense because that’s what we like. There have and will continue to be exceptions to that rule not only because we see you burger-traditionalists, and we respect you, but also because not all delicious burgers need come topped with 27 syllables worth of cheese and exotic vegetation. Over the course of our handful of hat-tips to the simpler burgers out there we’ve even come to coin the phrase “California Style” which, if your memory fails is, lettuce, tomato, pickle, onion, and Thousand-Island dressing. What we have managed to NOT do (until now anyway) is pay homage to the creator of that style. To give credit to the establishment who re-wrote the fast food bible that WackDonald’s imposed upon the world. To shout out the institution that is a culinary pillar of Southern California, and whose quality and consistency will keep them adorned in that accolade. Today friends, we are going to In ‘N Out.

Animal Fries

Animal Fries

This is a burger blog about Southern California’s offerings, and if you’re reading this (you are), you probably live in Southern California and you probably like burgers. If both of those things are true, I’d bet the farm that you don’t need me to tell you about In ‘N Out’s food. So, I won’t. It’s great. You know that. Sometimes I crave their food in a way that can only be cured by their food. You probably do too. In very few contexts, processed-pasteurized-American-cheese-food-product is pure joy and the greatest of those contexts is known as “Animal Fries.” None of this is news to you. However, you may not be rich with fun facts about the company that has become a staple to residents and a to-do list top-liner for everyone who visits Southern California. Let’s change that.

If you haven’t read Fast Food Nation, you should; though it will probably have you questioning (and rightfully so) not only what you eat but also just how shameful you should feel about it. Though the whole book is informative,  the very beginning describes Southern California as the Fertile Crescent of hamburgers and how that came to pass, which, if you’re like me (fat), is simply fascinating. Ray Crock, the industrious entrepreneur who took McDonald’s from one popular restaurant to a National force, created a blueprint that nearly all other fast food chains modeled their businesses after: Prime convenient locations and plenty of them, profitability through extremely low costs of both food and labor, market saturation, and a franchise business structure. In N’ Out’s philosophy agrees with exactly zero of those things. They only have approximately 300 retail locations despite nearly 70 years in operation, are entirely privately owned by the family that started the business and have offered no franchises, take excellent care of their employees both financially and in terms of available benefits, and have higher food costs so as not to compromise the company’s quality standards. If that wasn’t enough differentiation, the diversity of the menu is nil (there are basically a total of 4 things: burgers, fries, shakes, sodas, though one has a couple of style options per category), every store looks identical, and the pro-Jesus culture is subtle but visible on the bottom of every cup. So according to the fast food model followed by most of their competitors, In ‘N Out does everything wrong. Somehow that doesn’t equate to failure. I implore anyone to find an uncrowded location at mealtime.
In ‘N Out is another solid example of “if you build it, they will come.” Uncompromising standards yield consistent quality, and that makes for consistently happy customers, who are loyal. This chain’s contribution to SoCal’s burger Mesopotamia is an important one, and one that I suspect will continue to enjoy slow and steady growth at whatever pace it chooses, as has been the case thus far. If it ain’t broke…
– Geoff Sawyer


the 50 50

I’ve never been a huge team sports fan. Of course when playoff season comes around, regardless of the name of the featured ball, I tend to keep up based on frequent alcohol-lubed small-talk sessions and friends who care more than I. Thai Boxing and Mixed Martial Arts hold my attention much more dependably, but neither of those sports have the invariable American household ubiquity that the professional versions of activities available to middle school students do. I bring this up because my lack of dedication to team sports has resulted in a smaller number of stimulating Sports Bar experiences than have likely been had by those who never miss one of their favorite college basketball team’s regular season games. This is important for one reason: today’s burger is served at what might be one of the greatest Sports Bars ever, but I don’t think I’m qualified to make such a determination.

Slater’s 50/50 is located on N. Raymond St. only a few short blocks from the epicenter of Pasadena’s most consumer driven pocket: the intersection of Fair Oaks and Colorado. A very quick walk from the Memorial Park Metro (on the way there at least, the walk back to the train was much slower) it’s quite accessible too, assuming you’re on the East end of Los Angeles to begin with. Early in the day the place was a ghost-town but being that there was seating for 200 or more, logic suggests they pull a crowd from time to time. The vibe is very corporate, and my guess is that the folks involved in the design have a TGIFriday’s pedigree or something comparable. Slater’s is a bit nicer than your average chain, but they do turn all the barstools to the door so they look “inviting” and make sure that any and every staff member introduces themself before saying “and I’ll be taking care of you today.” It ends up feeling like the kind of place where family functions would occur if you all did the Cheesecake Factory was last week and/or there is a game on. To be fair though, it’s a sports bar, and you don’t go somewhere with 80 tables and nearly as many HD screens to be wowed by the individuality of the table settings. You go for cold beers and good bar food, and Slater’s delivers big time in both departments.

The 50 50 egg spill

50/50 refers to the blend of their burger, which is half ground chuck, and half ground bacon. Bacon. Half of it, by WEIGHT, is bacon. This pleased me. Slater’s has a respectable collection of burgers, ten in all (or you can design your own), some of which are recommended to be ordered with the 50/50 patty and some that aren’t, though you can have any menu burger with the patty of your choice. Naturally, I chose the signature burger (The 50/50), which comes adorned with a sunny side up egg, avocado mash, pepper-jack cheese (though mine had no spice whatsoever), and adobo-chipotle mayo, served on a white brioche. Being that half of the patty is ground bacon, the rarest they serve the 50/50 is medium, which I requested. This burger was delicious. All that bacon in the patty predictably makes for a very unique flavor, and they actually grill them, so the patty had a good char, crust and smoke flavor on the outside while still being pretty pink in the center. Any burger with a sunny egg on it is going to be messy, particularly when accompanied only by slathers of other slimy stuff, but it was manageable somehow despite its toppings. There was no spice; as I said the cheese was not in fact pepper jack, and the mayo though flavorful was not actually spicy. This is not a problem or complaint, simply an observation. The singular thing I would change about this burger would be salt on the avocado. They didn’t season it individually, which made it taste like negative salt when perched atop a grilled wad of bacon. Otherwise the 50/50 is an all around great burger, and inventive.


Slater’s sides were good too and even the ketchup has bacon in it. Perhaps my fried pickle bar has dropped since having them at The Escondite, but I thought Slater’s fried pickles were the best I’ve seen in a while. You have to request Ranch, sadly it seems that there is a west coast epidemic of not knowing what the only condiment meant for tempura dill chips is, but it’s a small price to pay and the server that you will know by name should be happy to grab it for you. They also have 101 beers on tap. You read that right. Over one hundred draught beers. This selection, the great food, and the absolute impossibility of finding a seat from which you can’t see a T.V. leads me to believe that Slater’s holds a strong position in the sports bar pantheon, but I do have some bad news. Myself, and my dining partner, were absolutely wrecked by the food. Slater’s represents the worst Gut-Bomb I’ve experienced since this site’s inception, to such a degree that I feel obligated to warn you readers. When I say wrecked, I mean call in to work and keep coconut water in hand all day kind of wrecked. Tummy bubbles that you wouldn’t wish on an enemy. My sense (hope) is that we got unlucky, and got semi-mild food poisoning at a place that does not generally have this issue. Their food quality certainly appeared up to snuff. My advice, don’t feel weird about ordering this burger cooked. I was pleasantly surprised at how pink ours were, but it seems we paid dearly for it.

-Geoff Sawyer

50 50 guts


The Original Tops Burger in Pasadena had their 60th anniversary party this weekend.  To celebrate their success the restaurant sold their Tops Special Burger for 60 cents. Who could say no to that? So I hopped in the car on Saturday morning to check it out. The line to get in wound around the building, but it moved really quickly. The kitchen was moving at a frenzied pace trying to cook up burgers in time with demand. The poor guys looked like Sisyphus pushing a rock up that godforsaken hill. Every time they got close to completing their mission, they would be swamped with more orders. 

From here on out I must warn you. This review will be skewed. My meal cost $1.33 (I got a drink) and I’m a very cheap woman. If something costs next to nothing I will love it even more. I love all of my free t-shirts more than the ones I’ve bought. I love every free meal I’ve ever gotten more than the ones I paid for. So, apologies in advance for what come next. It was the best damn 60 cent burger I’ve ever had. The Tops Special consists of a quarter pound beef patty with a thick layer of iceberg lettuce, tomato, sweet red onion, dill pickle and homemade Thousand Island dressing topped with pastrami, mustard and American cheese. It’s a whole lot of flavors piled high and then wrapped snuggly in wax paper sheath.

Would I pay $6.49 for it though? Well, that depends on the circumstances. Is it 3am? Then yes. (They close at 11pm.) Are we in a truck stop in the middle of Missouri? Then I would be super stoked that we managed to find a burger this good, but because we’re in a city that is densely packed with good burgers, probably not. That being said, would I pay a couple bucks more for their pastrami sandwich? Absolutely, unquestionably, yes. The superstar of the burger was far and away the pastrami on top. The salty meaty goodness was divine with the mustard and completely eclipsed the burger patty. The burger itself seemed like an afterthought compared to its toppings. It wasn’t a pastrami burger. It was a pastrami melt with a burger that got lost in the middle of it. It was the Beyonce in the middle of Destiny’s Child. You knew right away who the star was.

-Molly Bergen

Happy accidents. How cool are they? Can you imagine being the first person to accidentally heat your dried corn until it exploded, or spill a bit of rennet in your warm milk and watch it thicken? Even the non-world-altering ones are terrific; like finding an un-cashed check that is bigger than anything you ever thought you’d forget about, or getting rained out of an outdoor adventure only to have a more awesome time with Netflix and a snuggle buddy. I love them, and to me, today’s burger was a happy accident.

King’s Row is a Gastropub in Pasadena that not only had I never visited before this week, I had never heard of it. Since this blog’s inception, there has been a spreadsheet separated by Hood, listing all the places that deserve my time, money, thoughts, and subsequent metabolic strain. Molly and I both visit it regularly to add new spots as we hear of them or they occur to us, as well as to shop for each week’s culinary quest. (If you have a recommendation, holler: I was supposed to review Father’s Office this week, which, if you haven’t heard is very frequently mentioned among the L.A. burger scene’s fan favorites. I have only been once since moving to California, to the location in Culver City, at which the hostess was SUCH a bitch I can hardly remember what the food tasted like. I’m a sucker for good service, and equally appalled when it is terrible. I digress. The Santa Monica (and original) Father’s Office was on the agenda but I was in Pasadena pumpkin shopping and just didn’t have time for the drive. So- I consulted the list. “King’s Row,” started back at me from my phone. Though I recall those two words residing in the Pasadena column since the beginning of this blog, I have never heard anyone talk about this place. I Google it, and come to find a very bland and uninformative website. $5 happy hour burger with no description. Not looking good. I call Molly. Me: “Hey so is this a place that you want to cover, because I didn’t add it to our list… No? …You’ve never heard of it either? Huh. …Random suggestion from a forgotten friend. Alright well I’m going. Let’s hope it doesn’t suck.”

I map to this place and park across the street from where my phone tells me it is without ever actually laying eyes on the building. Upon walking up and looking at addresses, I determine that I should be right there but all I see is a watch repair shop and an ice cream parlor. Above the single inset door that separates those 2 stores is a very simple and plain sign that says “King’s Row.” I walked right under it. The door opens to a long and dimly but beautifully lit corridor with loads of naked hanging bulbs each emiting the tiniest bit of light. The hall opens up into a huge nouveau-rustic pub, complete with an entire ceiling of skylight. Two moderately sized indoor rooms connect to a large outdoor patio, which on this day was packed. Unless you happen into the alley that the patio faces, you could walk right past King’s Row a thousand times without ever knowing it was there. Within seconds of seating ourselves a friendly waiter appeared out of thin air to let us know that we order from the bar, and that happy hour was upon us. Thanks dude. Now take me to your burger.

The part of the menu that I was able to access from my phone was only the happy hour menu (because I am a dummy and not because their website is inferior as it turns out), and featured nibbles such as cod cakes, wings, and grilled cheese. You can imagine my complete elation when I discovered that they also have a more formal burger than the mini $5 one (3 of them actually), and it is made from 21 day aged ground rib eye (as they all are). Be still my hard-working heart. I had the self-titled “Dry Aged Rib Eye Burger” in that it appeared to be the basic version. This burger featured an 8oz. (guessing) ground rib eye patty, seasoned to absolute perfection. There truly is no substitute for quality meat. This patty is adorned with St. Agur Bleu and White Cheddar cheeses, duck fat caramelized onions, arugula, lemon-garlic aioli on a ‘house bun.’ This burger was nearly perfect. The flavor of the meat was staggeringly delicious due to the aging, and strong enough that the loudness of the cheeses did not totally overpower. The onions were mild and rich, the aioli uniquely bright and surprisingly salty. The bun was like a rosemary dinner roll, and by being a little on the dry side constitutes the singular reason I can’t give the burger a 10.0. It stayed together as I ate it, each bite was as delightful as the one it succeeded, and the fries that come with it were almost as brag-worthy.  At $14 I expect a pretty fine meal, and King’s Row delivered in every measurable way.

I am definitely going back to this restaurant. Look at the whole menu. Based on the care given to the construction of the burger, I can imagine that every dish these folks serve is something to celebrate. The entire patio was alive with happy people drinking, laughing and merrily gorging on beautiful food. You could enjoy just going here and having a cocktail. Yet again, I find myself attracted to a place where grown ups go, and yet again, the joy of food outweighs the pains of aging. I hope to be so lucky as to stumble into a few more similarly incredible finds while this burger quest continues.

-Geoff Sawyer

Pasadena has always felt a little too grown up for me. Whenever I find myself in the area, my inevitable criticism of my activities is that the vibe is too upper-middleclass-personality-void for my taste. That being said, there are some GREAT restaurants there, and my beef with Pasadena in general may have more to do with the fact that I actually enjoy it almost every time that I end up in some conservative, grown-and-sexy eatery and feel guilty for loving it. Perhaps it’s time to admit my passage into real adulthood, and embrace the guilt. Here goes: I had a very grown up burger experience recently, at Noir.

Upon arriving, I was escorted through a small and very cozy yet sophisticated bar area and into an open-air back patio. I was sat right next to the water feature, which felt like something you might find in the lobby of an excessively nice Beverly Hills Yoga studio. Noir is sort of a fail-safe date place, because if you like serious dates and are impressed by elements like the soothing sounds of an outdoor fountain and piped in saxophone music, they have them and you win. However, if you think that stuff is hilarious, they still have those things and you still win. In this case I was a member of the latter camp, and fortunately for me so was the friend I drug along. Despite my apparent smugness about the ambiance, from the time we were seated until we left, the food and the service were nearly impeccable.

Noir is more a wine bar than anything else, if you had to peg them for a specialty. The list of both Old World and local selections is long, and generally pretty affordable though you can certainly drop several hundred dollars on a single bottle if that’s your style. One of the greatest parts about the wine menu (particularly if you, such as myself, are not extremely educated about wine but thoroughly enjoy it) is that they offer flights of various types. Meaning you get three supposedly 2.5 ounce pours (mine were definitely bigger) of mid ranged wines from your selected group: Cabernets, Pinot Noirs, Chardonnays etc. for about $15 give or take a buck. The pours hardly look short of a proper glass of wine, so I found this to be a great deal and easy way to spare oneself the struggle of rationalizing the purchase of multiple drinks. You’ll be half drunk after a tasting.

Noir’s dinner menu is not large but rather skips straight to the main events. As a wine bar, the selections of charcuterie and fancy cheeses is vast, and the actual entrees are few but look like a greatest hits of food compilation. Lamb Chops, Steak, Seared Scallops, Crab cakes, and of course, a burger all can be found on the focused menu, with sides such as bacon fried rice, frittes, and truffled cauliflower. Naturally, I had the burger, which is referred to on the menu as “The Farewell Burger” though I managed to leave without thinking to ask our sever why the heck they call it that. Perhaps because I was drunk on 3 types of pinot noir… Anyhow, this is not a typical burger. The Farewell is heavily seasoned with Tarragon, and topped with caramelized onions, remoulade, and emmenthal cheese on a bread that most closely resembled ciabatta. Oh my dear lord the flavors. What a delight. Wonderfully seasoned beef, served extremely rare. I never thought I would say this but it actually could have been more cooked, though the burger certainly did not suffer for the lack of time on the grill. The onions were sweet, the remoulade tangy and plentiful, cutting down the funk of the emmenthal. The proportions were perfect, despite the burger being very saucy. It should be just as it was. The only problem and my singular criticism of the burger was the texture of the bread. Its flavor was spectacular, but it was so chewy, there was no hope for keeping this thing together as a sandwich. With all the other components being soft and slippery, every time I tried to take a bite everything on the bun squished out in every direction. I gave up early on and ate the whole thing with a knife and fork, and the bread was so tough event that was a challenge. I would still totally recommend Noir’s Farewell Burger, just plan on eating it like a steak.

Though all the food I tried was excellent, the real reason to go is for the wine. The selection was fierce, there are many affordable options, and my server was immeasurably knowledgeable about their offerings (as I should hope the entire staff is). Should I find myself there again it will probably be for an actual date, on which we indulge in many affordable wines, an impressive selection of French cheeses (so I look sophisticated), and hopefully with someone who finds humor in a smooth jazz aural backdrop.

-Geoff Sawyer

p.s. the lighting was so moody that I could not take a single decent photo. Fortunately the good folks at Noir were kind enough to provide the only photo of the Farewell Burger.

Sometimes you’ve got to get back to your roots. The evolution of design, fashion, music, culture and most definitely food, is both inevitable and fantastic; but despite being all for the progress of useful arts I still feel that taking a step back in time is necessary for any scholar. To fully appreciate the present, one must acknowledge generations past. As you may well know, Los Angeles has extremely rich history when it comes to burgers. Though widely recognized for the first time in 1904 at the St. Louis World’s Fair, the burger’s plight to become an American staple really began in 1940, when the McDonald Brothers opened their first restaurant in San Bernardino. I’ll spare you a thorough history lesson, but the result is a local landscape sprinkled with burger joints that have been around since before there was such thing as disco. (If you fancy further reading, the Wikipedia page for Hamburgers is pretty informative. Also, the beginning of “Fast Food Nation” has tons of interesting facts about how and why California became the burger hub it is, but read past the 2nd chapter at your own peril. Fast food is nasty). There actually is a reason I am talking about this, and it is called Pie ‘N Burger.

Nestled behind a lush hedge on California Blvd., Pie ‘N Burger is the dividing line between residences and the small businesses of Pasadena. Having opened its doors in 1963, it appears to have not changed much if at all since, at least based on what I imagine it to have looked like fifty years ago. Reportedly the menu’s modifications are negligible as well, including but not limited to the Chili Dog, which was hand painted at some point in its own little bubble on a menu board old enough to have seen us through nine Presidents. The menu is neither sparse nor overwhelming (as menus can sometimes be at diner style restaurants), but how many or few items it boasts is functionally irrelevant. You go for the pie, and you go for the burger.

Naturally, the general vibe of this place combined with its menu and the overwhelming praise thereof had my inner fat kid squealing with delight, and ostensibly over-ordering. I had the pie (2 of them actually) and the burger, and fries and a chocolate malt. Total overkill, but generally fantastic. The malt was entertaining but way too sweet; it was literally syrupy. Describing a milkshake as too sweet may seem oxymoronic but it really was excessive to the point I could only drink a little of it, and the meal’s singular weak link.

The burger however, couldn’t have been further from weak, and I had a delightful revelation while describing it. I intended to identify Pie ‘N Burger’s burger as Southern Cali style (Oinkster, In N Out, TK’s, etc.) minus the tomato, when I realized that that happens to refer to the exact same components that a Big Mac possesses. Mind BLOWN. Juicy beef, lettuce, pickles, onion, 1000 Island, and American cheese make this burger comfortable and familiar, but shine in a way that McDonalds food likely hasn’t since the days of its inception, if ever. It was hearty and sloppy, but manageable and oh so delicious. Despite having numerous edible distractions, I don’t recall setting this burger down before it was gone. An order of fries was plenty for 2 people, and the likelihood of engagement in conversation with a Pie ‘N Burger evangelist was high, though unequivocally enjoyable.

Yet another of Pie ‘N Burger’s dependable joys is predictably the first half of its name, pie. I had the boysenberry and the pecan, but there were a slew of other traditional pies available, and while none really test boundaries in terms of what a pie can be or do, each is probably about as good a version of that type of pie as one could ever possibly find. The pecan pie was really rich but somehow not too sweet, and the pecans on top were soft rather than over-candied (which is really hard to do, if you’ve never made one). The only reason I can’t rank it number 1 is because I am privileged enough to have a Southern Mom. The boysenberry though, was the best boysenberry pie I’ve tasted. Simple and perfect. Simple, and perfect.

Bougie burger fans, this place does not have what you’re used to. I liken your burgers to the stunningly attractive French girl who makes smoking and being bad at dancing somehow look good, and who has you wishing you’d actually gotten into contemporary art in college. Well this burger is her dad, the All American football hero who decided to make Paris his home after being stationed on an Air Force base there during the Vietnam War. He’s parted his hair the same way for half a century and get’s up at 5:25a.m. no matter what day it is. He says polite things to strangers and is never without an appropriate grandfatherly metaphor like “you can’t pay someone to do your pushups for you!” At a glance, you might overlook just how charming this guy really is, but get to know him. You’ll appreciate his daughter so much more once you have.

– Geoff Sawyer

When the idea for this website was conceived, the intention was to only make glowing reviews about burgers that totally rule, and simply not include the places that I cannot recommend highly. Being that there are so many great burgers to be had in the greater Los Angeles area, excluding the bad and mediocre ones seemed like a sensible protocol. Today is the day I must break that rule.

The newly founded premium offering by the gents who brought you The Habit Burger, Hook Burger (not to be confused with Hood Burger, ever) is nestled in the North East outskirts of Americaland (also known as Pasadena). Just on the other side of a conglomeration of international super-chains brought together by a parking lot large and well lit enough to simultaneously accommodate several professional sporting events as well as be seen from space, perhaps this location was chosen on the hope that once shoppers had had their fill of Bed Bath & Beyond/Dick’s/Ross/Pet Smart/Best Buy/Old Navy/etc./etc./etc. that they would be in need of a hearty snack. Stands to reason. I felt exhausted after just driving by.

Hook Burger’s exterior is clean and well designed, with stained wood and concrete dominating the establishment’s color and texture palate. The inside, looks like the nicest McDonalds you can imagine, complete with leather booths, more stained hardwood tables, walls and visible beams, and a delightfully charming young woman whose primary purpose appeared to be to herd confused first-timers such as myself to the counter where one’s order is placed. The menu is precise rather than lengthy, and the happy helper who saw me to the counter kindly followed along to make sure I knew about their signature burger, which I ordered.

“The Prime Burger” is Hook’s de-facto house burger, a simple no-frills take on the classic food medium we all know and love. A 5oz. Prime ground chuck patty comes dressed in lettuce, tomato, bourbon caramelized onions, and house made honey Dijon mayo for a very fair $4.95. I opted for the addition of cheddar cheese for another $0.75. On the plate it was flanked by 2 huge dill pickle chips, which also made their way to my burger and were perhaps its saving grace. The patty was skillfully cooked at a nice medium rare, but was a little too lean for my taste and could have been better seasoned. The sauce was terrific. Not too sweet, not to funky (as Dijon spreads can often be when liberally applied) so that it can be safely slathered, which somewhat made up for the fact that the burger wasn’t very fatty. Pickles were thick and crisp, with flavor and texture quite similar to the brand Claussen. I sided up with shoestring fries and coleslaw, the first of which were pretty good if you like canned potato sticks (they were very much like a fresh tasting version of those) and the latter being simple, fresh and dependable. The slaw was not a bold expression in any sense, but slaw needn’t be.

Overall the meal was fine though certainly lackluster. You won’t be mad if you eat there, and on the upside the customer service was incredible. Everyone was polite, engaging, and smiling constantly. Quality service is clearly a part of the company’s culture; no restaurant just gets lucky with its staff to such a degree. Frankly, this place has national chain written all over it. My surprise would be minimal if these guys enjoy incredible growth and success over the next 10 years based on their penchant for design (it totally feels like an upscale Chipotle) and choosing locations that are accessible to the appropriate demographic (i.e. shoppers attracted to destinations like the supermall described earlier), not to mention the success of the 10 or so locations that Habit Burger currently boasts. At Hook the food is priced slightly high for fast food but affordably as a “premium” alternative, and Hook’s mission includes a lot of well intentioned (and trendy) bullets such as using locally sourced produce and breads, naturally raised meats, and only biodegradable and/or recycled materials in their packaging- all of which I strongly support. The reality is that Hook Burger deserves to win, I have just apparently finally crossed forever over into burger snobbery. So be it.

-Geoff Sawyer

All photos in this post by Fredrick Guerrero.